A blood test is critical for determining blood type in case mothers need a transfusion, and also for something called Rh. If an infant's Rh is incompatible with the mothers it can lead to death. Researchers led by Gil Garnier at Monash University in Australia are developing a simple blood test that could cost as little as 10 cents. Theirs is a first in using 'dipstick' technology to test blood type.
Here is the Technology Review article on the subject: http://www.technologyreview.com/biomedicine/25501/.