Blood transfusions in the countries of sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia are critically important. The low standard of living and malnutrition in these countries leads to high frequency of anemia, particularly in children and women. According to World Health Organization (WHO) 30 to 40% of women in sub-Saharan Africa have anemia and about 25% of postpartum deaths in women are related to obstetrical hemorrhages. While blood transfusions are essential, blood safety remains a major problem in the developing world. One way to make an immediate impact in improving safety of blood transfusions is to develop assays for rapid and inexpensive screening of donated blood.